The Sphere Calculator contains equations for volumes, surface areas, Basic Sphere
Sphere Segment (Frustum)
masses and moments of inertia for objects shaped like a geometric sphere.
The Sphere calculator contains equations for volumes, surface areas, masses and moments of inertia for objects shaped like a geometric sphere. The user can enter basic dimensions and the calculator returns the values. Note, different units are available for input and outputs of the equations.
The equations include the following:
A sphere (from Greek — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round Spherical Shell geometrical and circular object in three-dimensional space that resembles the shape of a completely round ball. Like a circle, which, in geometric contexts, is in two dimensions, a sphere is defined mathematically as the set of points that are all the same distance r from a given point in three-dimensional space. This distance r is the radius of the sphere, and the given point is the center of the sphere. The maximum straight distance through the sphere passes through the center and is thus twice the radius; it is the diameter.
In mathematics, a distinction is made between the sphere (a two-dimensional closed surface embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space) and the ball (a three-dimensional shape that includes the interior of a sphere).
Pairs of points on a sphere that lie on a straight line through the sphere's center are called antipodal points. A great circle is a circle on the sphere that has the same center and radius as the sphere and consequently divides it into two equal parts. The shortest distance along the surface between two distinct non-antipodal points on the surface is on the unique great circle that includes the two points. Equipped with the great-circle distance, a great circle becomes the Riemannian circle.
If a particular point on a sphere is (arbitrarily) designated as its north pole, then the corresponding antipodal point is called the south pole, and the equator is the great circle that is equidistant to them. Great circles through the two poles are called lines (or meridians) of longitude, and the line connecting the two poles is called the axis of rotation. Circles on the sphere that are parallel to the equator are lines of latitude. This terminology is also used for such approximately spheroidal astronomical bodies as the planet Earth.
Any plane that includes the center of a sphere divides it into two equal hemispheres. Any two intersecting planes that include the center of a sphere subdivide the sphere into four lunes or biangles, the vertices of which all coincide with the antipodal points lying on the line of intersection of the planes.
The antipodal quotient of the sphere is the surface called the real projective plane, which can also be thought of as the northern hemisphere with antipodal points of the equator identified.
The round hemisphere is conjectured to be the optimal (least area) filling of the Riemannian circle.
The circles of intersection of any plane not intersecting the sphere's center and the sphere's surface are called spheric sections
In their book Geometry and the imagination David Hilbert and Stephan Cohn-Vossen describe eleven properties of the sphere and discuss whether these properties uniquely determine the sphere. Several properties hold for the plane, which can be thought of as a sphere with infinite radius. These properties are: