The Mass or Weight of a Spherical Shell calculator computes the volume of a spherical shell with an outer radius (r) and a thickness (t). Spherical Shell INSTRUCTIONS: Choose your units (e.g. centimeters, inches or kilometers) and enter the following parameters:
Mass of the Spherical Shell (M): The mass is returned in kilograms. However the user can automatically convert the mass to other mass and weight units (e.g. grams, ounces, pound and tons) via the pulldown menu. To compute the Volume of a Spherical Shell, CLICK HERE.
The mass of a spherical shell can compute the amount of materials needed to coat any spherical object from a candy gumball to a submarine bathysphere.
To lookup the Mean Density of over 500 substances,CLICK HERE.
The equation calculate the Volume of a Sphere is V = 4/3•π•r³. This formula computes the difference between two spheres to represent a spherical shell, and can be algebraically reduced as as follows:
V = 4/3 π (r^{3}  (rt)^{3})
where:
Once the volume of the shell is known, this calculator then uses that volume with the mean density as follows:
Common Mean Densities in Kilograms per Meter Cubed (kg/m^{3})  
Fluids
Fuels
MarketReady Grains 
Metals

Earthen
Synthetic
Organic

Mean Density Lookup Function 
Mean density is scientifically volume divided by mass. There are various unit for density adopted by cultures and industries. Common units for density included the following:
Weight is technically the downward force that a mass exerts based on the force of gravity and the mass of the object. On the surface of the Earth, mass and weight are often interchanged. In some places, objects are sold by the gram (mass), and in other locations, the same objects are sold by the ounce (weight).
The Weight Calculators use the dimensions of an object and its shape to compute the objects volume. They then apply a density associated with a material to estimate the objects weight.