The Mass or Weight of a Spherical Shell calculator computes the volume of a spherical shell with an outer radius (r) and a thickness (t). Spherical Shell INSTRUCTIONS: Choose your units (e.g. centimeters, inches or kilometers) and enter the following parameters:
Mass of the Spherical Shell (M): The mass is returned in kilograms. However the user can automatically convert the mass to other mass and weight units (e.g. grams, ounces, pound and tons) via the pulldown menu. To compute the Volume of a Spherical Shell, CLICK HERE.
The mass of a spherical shell can compute the amount of materials needed to coat any spherical object from a candy gumball to a submarine bathysphere.
To lookup the Mean Density of over 500 substances,CLICK HERE.
The equation calculate the Volume of a Sphere is V = 4/3•π•r³. This formula computes the difference between two spheres to represent a spherical shell, and can be algebraically reduced as as follows:
V = 4/3 π (r^{3}  (rt)^{3})
where:
Once the volume of the shell is known, this calculator then uses that volume with the mean density as follows:
Common Mean Densities  
Fluids
MarketReady Grains 
Metals

Mean Density is the average amount of mass within a volume for a substance. Note, volume of a material is often highly subject to the temperatures, since materials expand as they warm. For that reason, mean densities of substances are often cited with a set of nominal conditions such as temperature and barometric pressure.
The formula for mean density is:
μD = V / m
where:
Mean density is also often indicated as the Greek symbol rho (ρ).
Density is a function of mass. However, converting from mass to weight is trivial under the right conditions. Fortunately those conditions are generally true anywhere on the surface of the Earth, so the conversions built into the vCalc engine can be assumed to be fairly accurate unless you require weight at very high altitudes or in space.
The mean density (mD or μD) of many common substances, elements, liquids and materials can be found by clicking HERE .
Mean density is scientifically volume divided by mass. There are various unit for density adopted by cultures and industries. Common units for density included the following:
vCalc provides for automatic conversions between density units via the pulldown menus.