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` = "Friedman Equation"`

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The **Friedman Equation** calculator estimates the number of advanced galactic nomad civilizations comprised of both life as we know it and life as we do not know it in the observable universe.

Michael L. Friedman, M.D. (born 21 July, 1977) is an American physician and scientist. He is a cardiologist and interventional cardiologist for the Mount Sinai Health System Icahn School of Medicine in New York.

**INSTRUCTIONS:** Enter the following:

(**F _{RG}**) = fraction of red giants stars

(**F _{PN})** = fraction of planetary nebulae

(**F _{WD}**) = fraction of white dwarfs

(**F _{RSG}**) = fraction of red super giant stars

(**F _{SN}**) = fraction of supernova

(**F _{NS}**) = fraction of neutron stars

(**F _{BH}**) = fraction of black holes identified

(**F _{PS}**) = fraction of end stage star planetary systems which may have previously existed

(**F _{HZ}**) = fraction of the end stage star planetary system’s habitable zone planets suitable for life as we know it

(**F _{WHZ}**) = fraction of the end stage star planetary system’s widened habitable zone planets suitable for life as we do not know it

(**F _{I}**) = fraction of end stage star planetary systems in which intelligent civilizations emerged

(**F _{IO}**) = fraction of intelligent civilizations outlasting great filters and outliving its star

(**N**) = The calculator returns the number of advanced galactic nomad civilizations comprised of both life as we know it and life as we do not know it in the observable universe.

The Drake equation was devised to estimate the number of communicating alien civilizations in our galaxy. Subsequent equations have been created to calculate the number of alien civilizations detectable from earth (Seager Equation), and to calculate how frequently life originates outside of earth (Scharf-Cronin Equation). The **Friedman Equation** instead focuses on approximating the amount of advanced alien life both as we know it and as we do not know it in the observable universe, and includes additional parameters (including end-stage products of stars, and widened habitable planetary zones) to that of it’s precursor equations. Both average sized stars and massive sized stars can have planets which may harbor life. After billions of years, average sized stars in their last stages of evolution become: red giant stars, planetary nebula, and white dwarfs. Similarly, massive sized stars in their end stages become: red super giant stars, supernova, neutron stars, and black holes. Stars in their last stages of evolution have had a longer amount of time for intelligent life to develop in their respective solar systems’ potential habitable planetary zones. Additionally, a later stage star’s gradual outward expansion allows for larger regions of potential habitable planetary zones to develop. Similarly, life as we do not know it may evolve on planets considered to be in uninhabitable zones. This in turn may widen the total habitable zone of any planetary system. Therefore, products of end stage star evolution are more likely to represent regions of prior emergence of intelligent civilizations indigenous to those respective solar systems, who at some point may have evolved to type 3, and abandoned its native planet. These galactic nomad civilizations may have fled their native planet secondary to exhausted natural resources, or pending catastrophic doom of some sort. After fleeing its native solar system, nomad civilizations may roam galaxies and take residence in a manner which may be undetectable and unrecognizable to us.

The **Friedman Equation** formula is:

N = ( F_{RG} x F_{PS} x F_{HZ} x F_{WHZ} x F_{I} x F_{IO} ) + ( F_{PN} x F_{PS} x F_{HZ} x F_{WHZ} x F_{I} x F_{IO} ) +

( F_{WD} x F_{PS} x F_{HZ} x F_{WHZ} x F_{I} x F_{IO} ) + ( F_{RSG} x F_{PS} x F_{HZ} x F_{WHZ} x F_{I} x F_{IO} ) +

( F_{SN} x F_{PS} x F_{HZ} x F_{WHZ} x F_{I} x F_{IO} ) + ( F_{NS} x F_{PS} x F_{HZ} x F_{WHZ} x F_{I} x F_{IO} ) +

( F_{BH} x F_{PS} x F_{HZ} x F_{WHZ} x F_{I} x F_{IO} )

where:

(**N**) = number of advanced galactic nomad civilizations comprised of both life as we know it and life as we do not know it in the observable universe.

(**F _{RG}**) = fraction of red giants stars

(**F _{PS}**) = fraction of end stage star planetary systems which may have previously existed

(**F _{HZ}**) = fraction of the end stage star planetary system’s habitable zone planets suitable for life as we know it

(**F _{WHZ}**) = fraction of the end stage star planetary system’s widened habitable zone planets suitable for life as we do not know it

(**F _{I}**) = fraction of end stage star planetary systems in which intelligent civilizations emerged

(**F _{IO}**) = fraction of intelligent civilizations outlasting great filters and outliving its star

(**F _{PN})** = fraction of planetary nebulae

(**F _{WD}**) = fraction of white dwarfs

(**F _{RSG}**) = fraction of red super giant stars

(**F _{SN}**) = fraction of supernova

(**F _{NS}**) = fraction of neutron stars

(**F _{BH}**) = fraction of black holes identified