Snow Water Equivalent (SWE)

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Equation / Last modified by KurtHeckman on 2018/02/28 13:06
Titan.Snow Water Equivalent (SWE)
Type of snow or ice(kg/m3)
Fresh New snow 50-70
Damp new snow100-200
Settled snow200-300
Depth hoar100-300
Wind packed snow350-400
Firn   (granular)400-830
Very wet 700-800
Glacier ice830-917

The Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) calculator computes of the volume (V) of liquid water contained in snow pack defined by area, depth and snow type.

INSTRUCTIONS: Choose your preferred units and enter the following:

  • (a) area covered
  • (d) depth and 
  • (t) type of snow (see table). 

Liquid Water Volume (V): The volume (V) is returned in gallons.  However, this can be automatically converted into other volume units (e.g. liters or cubic yards) via the pull-down menu.
In essence, this computes the amount of water in snow.  See YouTube video instructions HERE. YardSnow.jpg

Related Calculators:

  • To compute the Weight/Mass of Snow on an Area, CLICK HERE
  • To compute the Weight of Snow on a Rectangular Area, CLICK HERE.
  • To compute the Weight of Snow on a Roof, CLICK HERE.
  • To compute the Weight of Snow on a Polygon Shaped Area, CLICK HERE.
  • Compute the Volume of Water in a Rainfall
  • To compute the flow rate of a broad crested weir, CLICK HERE.
  • To compute the capillary rise, CLICK HERE.
  • To compute the volume of flood water, CLICK HERE.
  • To compute the number of sandbags needed to build a wall or dike, CLICK HERE.

If there are other useful calculators that can assist your efforts, do not hesitate to contact vCalc and make a request.  Our team of engineers and volunteers are happy to assist you.  To contact us, use the Contact Us button at the bottom of the page.Calculate Area by Shapesquare footage.png

Calculating Area

The area covered by snow may be difficult to estimate.  Here are some simple calculators to help you compute the area.  To compute the size of your snow covered area, you must first identify the shape of the area.  The common choices follow.  Click the name for the pop-up calculator.

  • Rectangle - Calculate area for simple four sided rectangle with squared corners.
  • Quadrilateral - Calculate area for quadrilateral which is an area with four straight sides with different angle corners.
  • Complete Circles - Calculate the area of a circle with a radius
  • Ellipse - Calculate the area of an ellipse, oval shaped or flattened circle.  See diagram.
  • If you know the base (b) and height (h) - Calculate the area of a triangle
  • If you know the length of three sides (a, b, c) - Calculate the area of a triangle
  • Polygons - Calculates the area of regular polygons with three or more sides where the sides are the same length with the same angles in the corners.

For a more comprehensive set of formulas to compute the area,CLICK HERE.

The Science

When snow melts, it becomes water.  This equations uses the approximate density of different types of snow (Snow Type) and the volume of snow based on the coverage area (a) and the average depth (d) to calculate the approximate volume of water contained in snow pack.  

   The areas entered can be small for things such as patios and roofs, and they can be large like a county.  Here is an equation that provides the areas for each county in Maryland -> Maryland County Areas  Use this equation to retrieve the area of the Maryland county, and then use that as input to the SWE equation to see how much water is contained in a snowfall on the county.

Density of Snow

Density of snow can range anywhere from 5% when ambient air temperature is 14 F, and can range up to 20% if the temperature is 32 F.  The snow density will increase after the snowfall due to gravitational settling, packing, wind effects, melting and refreezing.  The table below contains a generally accepted range of density (kg/m3) for different types of snow.    The equation will use a median value for the ranges in the density value column.    

See Also