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`p = (R*T)/(V_m-b ) - (a*alpha)/(V_m^2+2*b*V_m - b^2)`

Enter a value for all fields

The **Peng-Robinson Equation of State** calculator computes the pressure of a real gas (and in some cases does a good job for liquids also).

**INSTRUCTIONS:** Choose your preferred units and enter the following:

- (
**T**) - Absolute Temperature of the substance - (
**T**) - Critical Temperature of the gas_{c} - (
**V**) - Volume of one mole of the substance_{m} - (
**p**) - Saturated Vapor Pressure_{sat} - (
**p**) - Critical Pressure of the gas_{c}

**Peng-Robinson:** The calculator returns the pressure in pascals (Pa). However this can be automatically converted to other pressure units (e.g. millibars) via the pull-down menu.

The Peng-Robinson equation describes the state of the gas under given conditions, relating pressure, temperature and volume of the constituent matter. The Peng-Robinson equation of state has the basic form:

`p = (R*T)/(V_m - b) - (a*alpha)/ (V_m^2 + 2 * b * V_m - b^2) `

Variables **a**, **b**, and `alpha` are further described by:

`a = (0.457235 * R^2 * T_c^2)/p_c` , where R is the universal gas constant (8.3144626181532 J/(K·mol)) and T_{c} and p_{c} are defined in the Inputs above.

`b = (0.077796 * R * T_c) / p_c`

`alpha = (1 + kappa * (1 - T_r^(1/2) ) )^2`, where `T_r = T/T_c`

Further `kappa` in the definition of `alpha` is defined as:

`kappa = 0.37464 + 1.54226* omega - 0.26992* omega^2`, where `omega` is the acentric factor which is a function of the saturated vapor pressure and the critical pressure

It is easy to see in the first term of the Peng-Robinson equation that this state equation had its origins in the Ideal gas law: pV = nRT, since `V/n` gives you molar volume. To apply the Ideal gas law to real gases, correction terms have been included that are composed of empirically derived offsets.

The Peng-Robinson equation was specifically deigned to meet the following criteria^{1}:

- The parameters should be expressible in terms of the critical properties and the acentric factor.
- The model should provide reasonable accuracy near the critical point, particularly for calculations of the compressibility factor and liquid density.
- The mixing rules should not employ more than a single binary interaction parameter, which should be independent of temperature pressure and composition.
- The equation should be applicable to all calculations of all fluid properties in natural gas processes.

This equation is popular for us with natural gas systems found in petroleum industries. Equations of state are useful in describing the physical properties of fluids, solids, and even the interior of stars.

**R - Gas Constant:**8.3144626181532 J/(K⋅mol)**Boyle's Law Calculator**: P_{1}• V_{1}= P_{2}• V_{2}**Charles Law Calculator**: V_{1}• T_{2}= V_{2}• T_{1}**Combined Gas Law Calculator**: P•V / T= k**Gay-Lussac Law:**T_{1}•P_{2}=T_{2}•P_{1}**Ideal Gas Law**: P•V = n•R•T**Bragg's Law:**n·λ = 2d·sinθ**Hess' Law:**ΔH^{0}_{rxn}=ΔH^{0}_{a}+ΔH^{0}_{b}+ΔH^{0}_{c}+ΔH^{0}_{d}**Internal Energy**: ΔU = q + ω**Activation Energy**: E_{a}= (R*T_{1}⋅T_{2})/(T_{1}- T_{2}) ⋅ ln(k_{1}/k_{2})**Arrhenius Equation**: k = Ae^{E_a/(RT)}**Clausius-Clapeyron Equation**: ln(P_{2}/P_{1}) = (ΔH_{vap})/R * (1/T_{1}- 1/T_{2})**Compressibility Factor**: Z = (p*V_{m})/(R*T)**Peng-Robinson Equation of State**: p = (R*T)/(V_{m}- b) - (a*α)/(V_{m}^{2}+ 2*b*V_{m}- b^{2})**Reduced Specific Volume**: v_{r}= v/(R* T_{cr }/ P_{c})**Van't Hoff Equation**: ΔH^{0}= R * ( -ln(K_{2}/K_{1}))/ (1/T_{1}- 1/T_{2})