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`PD = ( B - A )/ S `

Enter a value for all fields

The **Propagation Delay** calculator computes the propagation delay based on the positions of two routers and the propagation speed.

**INSTRUCTIONS:** Choose units and enter the following:

- (
**A**) Position of router A on Network - (
**B**) Position of router B on Network - (
**S**) Propagation Speed

**Propagation Delay (PD):** The calculator returns the delay in milliseconds (ms). However this can be automatically converted to compatible units via the pull-down menu.

The formula for propagation delay is:

PD = ( A - B) / S

where:

- PD is the propagation delay
- A is the position of router A
- B is the position of router B
- S is the propagation speed

Once a bit is pushed into the link, it needs to propagate to router B. The time required to propagate from the beginning of the link to router B is the propagation delay. The bit propagates at the propagation speed of the link. The propagation speed depends on the physical medium of the link (that is, fiber optics, twisted-pair copper wire, and so on) and is in the range of `2*10^8 "meters/sec" to 3* 10^8 "meters/sec"` which is equal to, or a little less than, the speed of light. The propagation delay is the distance between two routers divided by the propagation speed.

- Time required to process an amount of data at a specific data processing rate
- Amount of time required to transfer an amount of data over a different types of networks
- Number of items (unit-less) produced over time
- Length or distance processed (produce or consume) over time
- Area processed (produced, covered or consumed) over time
- Volume processed (produced or consumed) over time
- Weight or mass processed (produced or consumed) over time
- Speedup Factor (aka Amdahl's Law)
- Compute Data Storage Needed
- Network Propagation Delay

- Propagation Delay - computes the delay between two routers based on their positions and a transfer rate.
- Nodal Delay - computes the nodal delay based on the queuing, processing, transmission and propagation delay.
- End to End Delay - computes the end to end delay based on the number of nodes and the processing, transmission, and propagation delay.
- RF Velocity of Propagation - computes the RF velocity based on the medium permittivity
- Transmission Delay - computes the delay based on length of packet and transmission rate.
- Data Transfer Time Calculator - computes the time to transfer an amount of data based on the data transfer rate.
- Simplified Propagation Delay - computes the delay between two router based on the distance and the transfer rate.
- Surge Impedance Loading - computes the power loading of a transmission line.
- Amdahl's Law - Compute the total system speedup time based on the improvement of one portion.
- Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) calculator computes a relative measure of the strength of the received signal (i.e., the information being transmitted) compared to the noise.
- Compute Data Storage Needed - computes the approximate amount of data storage needed based on a period of time and a data rate.
- Network Propagation Delay - computes the propagation delay based on the positions of two routers and the propagation speed.
- Shannon-Hartley Theorem - computes the theoretical upper limit data rate of a channel based on the bandwidth, receiver strength and channel noise.
- Cable dB Loss Budget - computes db loss based on length of fiber run and number of connectors.
- Voltage Resolution (Analog to Digital) - computes the Voltage Resolution of a measured analog signal over the nominal range [VL , VH] with a specified number of conversion bits.