Agriculture the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products to sustain and enhance human life. The goal of agriculture is basically for food production and other human needs such as clothing, medicines, tools, artistic display and dwelling, or for economic gain or profit.
Agriculture has two main divisions: plant or crop production and animal or livestock production. All farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands that are suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dryland farming. Livestock are raised in a combination of grassland-based and landless systems, in an industry that covers almost one-third of the world's ice- and water-free area.
The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. In the developed world, industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming, although there is growing support for sustainable agriculture, including permaculture and organic agriculture.
vCalc's Agriculture library contains content relevant to the techniques and technologies of crop and livestock production.