# Accounting Ratios

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The Accounting Ratio calculator provides numerous standard equations used in business accounting.

# Description

This calculator contains the equations found in vCalc/Equations/industry/accounting.  The equations include:

• Best Possible Days Sales Outstanding - gives useful insight into delinquencies, as it considers only Current Receivables.
• Current Ratio - A liquidity ratio that measures the ability to pay short-term liabilities.
• Days Sales Outstanding - tests the efficiency of the conversion of receivables into cash.
• Debt to Equity Ratio - measures how a company is leveraging its debt against the resources of its owners.
• Inventory Turnover Ratio - reveals how many times inventory turns over in a period
• Net Cash Flow from Operations - Net income - Increase in Receivables + Increase in Payables.
• Quick Assets - cash and assets that can be converted quickly to cash
• Quick Ratio (aka Acid Test) - measures the ability to pay short-term liabilities with cash and assets quickly convertible to cash
• Stockholder's Equity - sum of Common Stock at Par, Premium on Common Stock, Preferred Stock at Par, Premium on Preferred Stock and Retained Earnings

# Usage

### Best Possible Days Sales Outstanding

Best Possible Days Sales Outstanding gives useful insight into delinquencies, as it considers only Current Receivables, those aged 30 days and less. The nearer the result is to standard DSO, the more effective a company is in dealing with slow payers. Typical days in period are 360 or 365.

### Current Ratio

A liquidity ratio that measures the ability to pay short-term liabilities.

### Days Sales Outstanding

Days Sales Outstanding tests the efficiency of the conversion of receivables into cash. A result greater than a company's Terms (ie, Terms net 30, but DSO of 45) reveals that, on average, credit customers are taking 15 days beyond term to pay.   Typical days of period are 360 or 365.

### Debt to Equity Ratio

The Debt to Equity Ratio measures how a company is leveraging its debt against the resources of its owners. A result greater than 1 means that creditors have more stake than owners.

### Inventory Turnover Ratio

The Inventory Turnover Ratio reveals how many times inventory turns over (is sold and replaced) in a period. Some definitions of Inventory Turnover use Net Sales instead of Cost of Goods Sold. Ratios that that trend lower should be investigated, they may reveal slow moving inventory.

### Net Cash Flow from Operations

Net Cash Flow from Operations = Net income - Increase in Receivables + Increase in Payables.
Net cash flow monitoring is a frequent activity of a healthy business.

### Quick Assets

Quick Assets are a subset of Current Assets, and include cash and assets that can be converted quickly to cash.

### Quick Ratio

A liquidity ratio that measures the ability to pay short-term liabilities with cash and assets quickly convertible to cash.  Inventory, prepaid expenses, and other less liquid current assets should be omitted. Current Li
Also known as the accounting Acid Test.

Quick Ratio = (Cash + Marketable Securities + Receivables)  / abilities

### Stockholder's Equity

Stockholders' Equity is the sum of:

CS = Common Stock at Par
PCS = Premium on Common Stock
PS = Preferred Stock at Par
PPS = Premium on Preferred Stock
RE = Retained Earnings

# History

Thanks to Kim McLamb for providing the library of equations.