Processing...

`TR = (C* "D" ^2) / L * sqrt((SG)/10.9)`

Enter a value for all fields

The **Greenhill Rifling Formula** is used to calculate the optimal barrel twist rate for stabilizing a bullet's flight given the bullet's diameter(**D**), length(**L**), specific gravity (**SG**) and velocity(**V**). The resulting twist rate is the length in which the rifling of the barrel will make one full rotation.

**INSTRUCTIONS:** Choose units and enter the following:

- (
**D**) Diameter of Bullet - (
**L**) Length of Bullet - (
**SG**) Specific Gravity of bullet's material. Note: a default of 10.9 is provided for the SG of a lead-cored bullet. - (
**V**) Muzzle Velocity of average round.

**Optimal Barrel Twist Rate (TR):** The calculator computes the length (**TR**) for one complete rifling rotation in inches. However this can be automatically converted to other length units via the pull-down menu.

The Twist Rate is commonly written as a ratio. Some common rifling ratios are 1:7, 1:9, 1:36, where 1:7 corresponds to 1 turn in 7 inches.

The constant C corresponds to the velocity at which the bullet is fired. For velocities up to 2800 ft/s 150 is used. For anything higher 180 is used.

The Greenhill Riffling Formula used in this calculator is:

`TR = (C*D^2) / L * sqrt((SG)/10.9)`

where:

- TR = Twist Rate ratio for a riffled barrel
- C = Factor associated with muzzle velocity. It's 150 for muzzle velocities under 2,800 ft/s and 180 otherwise.
- D = Diameter of Bullet
- L = Length of Bullet
- SG = Specific Gravity of Bullet Material.

Here is an interesting article on why proper bullet stabilization matters: http://www.ammoland.com/2017/02/ar-15-barrel-twist-rates-you-need-to-know/#axzz4alKeEk8o

**Sectional Density**: This computes the factor used in the computation of the ballistic coefficient called sectional density.**Bullet Ballistic Coefficient**:**NEW!**This factor represents a bullet's ability to overcome air resistance in flight.**Ballistic Coefficient from Bullet's Mass, Diameter and Form Factor****NEW!****Miller Twist Rule**: calculate the optimal barrel twist rate for stabilizing a bullet's flight given the bullet's diameter, length and mass.**Taylor Knock-out Factor**: Calculates a factor indicating the power of a round,.**Greenhill Formula for Optimal Rifling Twist Rate**: calculate the optimal barrel twist rate for stabilizing a bullet's flight given the bullet's diameter, length, specific gravity and velocity.**Bullet Flight Range**:**NEW**! This computes the maximum range (horizontal distance) traveled by a bullet based on the muzzle velocity, elevation angle and shooter height.**Muzzle Energy of a Projectile**: calculate the kinetic energy in a bullet immediately after leaving the barrel given the bullet's mass and velocity.**Recoil Velocity of a Gun**: computes the velocity at which a gun will move in the opposite direction in relation to the projectile that it fired.**Cost per Round**: cost per round of ammunition based on the cost of a container of cartridges and the number of rounds in the container.**Rifle Sight Correction Angles**: Computes the Minutes of Angle corrections for rifle sights.**Shotgun Shell Reloading Cost**: Computes the cost to reload used shotgun shells (hulls) with powder, shot, wads and primers.**Shotgun Shell Loading Cost**: Computes the cost to load new pre-primed shells (hulls) with power, shot and wads.**Metal Ball Weight**: Computes the mass (weight) of a spherical metal (e.g., steel) ball based on the size (diameter).**Metal Cylinder Weight**: Computes the mass (weight) of a metal cylinder based on the size (diameter and length).

Further Information: